How To Pitch an Idea

By Scott Berkun, February 2005

Coming up with good ideas is hard, but convincing others to do something with them is harder. The task of bringing an idea to someone with the power to do something with it is called a pitch: software ideas, implementation strategies, movie screenplays, organizational changes, and business plans, are all pitched from one person to another.

And although the fields or industries may differ, the basic skill of pitching ideas is the same. This essay is a primer on pitches, and although most of my experience is in tech, I pitch to you that the advice here will be relevant to anyone anywhere.

[This essay is now included in the updated edition of the bestseller, The Myths of Innovation

The nature of ideas

Ideas demand change. Even if your idea is undeniably brilliant, it will force someone, somewhere to change how they do something. And since many people do not like change, and fear change, the qualities of your idea that you find so appealing may be precisely what make your idea so difficult for people to accept.

Some individuals fear change so much that they structure their lives around avoiding it. (Know anyone obviously miserable in their job, city, or relationship, but still refusing to change?). So when your great idea comes into contact with a person who does not want change, you and your idea are at a disadvantage. Before you can begin the pitch, you have to make sure you’re talking to someone that’s interested in change, or has a clear need that your idea can satisfy.

Healthy organizations make change easier than stinky evil organizations do. Smart organizations  often depend on change. Leaders in these havens for smart people not only encourage positive change to happen, but expect people at all levels of their organization to push for it. It requires more work and maturity for these managers to make this kind of environment successful, but when they pull it off, smart people are systematically encouraged to be smart. Idea pitching happens all the time: in hallways, in the cafeteria, in meetings.

But since most of us don’t work in these kinds of places, the burden of pitching ideas falls heavily on our shoulders.

Step 0: Create and refine the idea

The classic mistake of would be idea pitchers is to pitch the idea well before it’s ready. When most people find an interesting idea, they’re quickly seduced by their egos into doing silly and non productive things, like annoying everyone they come into contact with by telling them how amazing their new idea is. The thrill of being clever is so strong that they forget the fact that there are 100 interesting ideas bouncing around for every single truly good idea. 

Good ideas include some thinking about execution and delivery. Saying “we should build cars that go 1000 mph and get 100mpg and easily fold to fit in your back pocket” or “We should make a children’s movie that is very funny and intelligent for parents and children, but also has a deep positive spiritual and moral message” count as interesting ideas. They’re good starts. But they won’t be good ideas, in the sense of pitch-work, until there’s both some logic for how to make it real within reasonable limitations, and some level of detail in how the convert the abstract idea (build a breakthrough automobile) into tangible plans (the trans warp drive I’ve designed improves gasoline efficiency tenfold).

So until the concepts and hard parts are fleshed out enough to demonstrate that the spirit of an idea is matched with specifics, the idea doesn’t have much of a foundation. People can dismiss it quickly just by asking 2 or 3 basic questions. Always remember that moving from an interesting but vague idea, to specific and actionable is the difficult part of creation and invention. (For example, there were lots of people with the idea for making light bulbs. Edison’s success was not in being the first one to conceive the idea, but in having the persistence and cunning to be the first person to solve many of the practicalities involved in engineering the idea).

Most of the time it’s not worth pitching an idea until you’re able to answer some of the basic pragmatic questions about it, such as: What problem does this solve? What evidence is there that the problem is real, and important enough to solve (or in the corporate world, solve profitably?) What are the toughest logistical challenges implied by the idea, and how will (or would) you solve them? Do you have a prototype, sample or demonstration of an implementation of the idea (aka proof of concept)? Why are you the right person to solve it? Why should this problem be solved now? Why should our organization solve this problem? These are all the kinds of questions someone that gets pitched to on a daily basis are likely to ask, and therefore, a good pitch-person will have done more than superficial thinking on their answers.

Step 1: What is the scope of the idea

The bigger the idea, the more involved the pitch. Big ideas require more change to take place on someone’s part, and all things being equal, this means the pitch must be more thorough (or your approach more bold & risky). The stakes are higher. To convince a CEO to start a new million dollar project will take more effort than convincing your best friend to loan you his pen. As a rough guide, here’s how to assess the scope of an idea, from narrow to grand:

  • Tiny tweak to something already in existence
  • New feature or enhancement to existing product / website / company
  • A major new area of an existing product / website / company
  • An entirely new, but small and simple, project
  • An entirely new, but large and possibly complex, project
  • An organizational, directional, or philosophical, change to an existing organization
  • A new organization
  • A new nation, planet or dimension of the universe (Sorry. But for how to pitch to the omnipotent forces that run the universe, you’ll have to look elsewhere).

When you’ve identified the scope of your idea, do some research on how others pitching ideas of similar scope went about it. You’re probably not the first person to pitch something of the scope you’re pitching, so go find out what other people did, and what kind of success they had. Learn from their mistakes. There are books on pitching business plans, movie scripts, and of course pitching yourself (job interviewing). Do your homework: know some of the basic strategies, or industry expectations for the kind of pitch your doing. In the software development world, talk to people who have pitched feature ideas in your organization, and see what you can learn.

Step 2: Who has the power to green light the idea

Make a list of the people that are potential recipients of your pitch. This could be your boss, your VP, another company, a bank, a publisher, who knows. Base this list on two criteria: who has the power needed to implement the idea, and who you might have access to. Here’s a rough guide, ordered from fantastic to depressing.

  • You have the power.
  • A peer in your organization has the power.
  • Your boss has the power.
  • Someone above you in the organization.
  • Someone you know in another organization.
  • Someone you don’t know and don’t have easy access to.
  • You have no idea.
  • You are paralyzed on a cold wet basement floor, and your annoying younger brother keeps poking you in the ribs with the pointy end of pencil. (See, it can always be worse).

If you have no idea who to pitch your idea to, ask around. There’s no sense developing your pitch if there’s no one to catch. If you don’t have access to the person with the power you need, make a list of who has access to them, working backwards until you can list people you actually know. You may need to work through this network of people, and make several pitches, to achieve the results you want. Just getting to the real pitch situation may take days, weeks or months or preparation and pitching to subordinates.

Step 3: Start with their perspective

Put your pitch aside. Imagine you have mind-melded with the person you are pitching to. How do they think about the world? What kinds of things are they probably interested in? What is their typical day like? How many unsolicited pitches do they receive a day? Consider how the person you’re trying to pitch views the world, and keep it in mind while developing your pitch. The better your pitch fits into their needs, perspectives, and desires, the greater your odds of being successful (or even being listened to). This doesn’t mean sell out, or only create ideas that you think a specific person will like. Instead this just means you have to be aware of how your perspective is different from theirs, and improve your ideas, and how you communicate them, based on that awareness. This may help you decide who to bring your pitch to: The most powerful person in the organization might share none of your philosophy, but the 3rd or 4th most powerful person might. The later is going to be a better place to start.

Step 4: The structure of the pitch

Always formulate 3 levels of depth to pitching your idea: 5 seconds, 30 seconds, 5 minutes (Credit to Ari Blenkhorn for this simple breakdown). The 5 second version, also known as the elevator pitch, is the most concise single sentence formulation of whatever your idea is. Refine, refine, refine your thinking until you can say something intelligent and interesting in a short sentence. “My idea? It’s a way to make car engines twice as efficient, and 5 times as powerful.” This can be done for any idea: never allow yourself to believe your thing is so complicated and amazing that it’s impossible to explain in a sentence. If you were to use this excuse on me, I’d tell you it means you don’t have enough perspective on how your idea fits into the world.

If you can get enough perspective of what you’re really doing, have a half-decent command of whatever language you’re using, and spend some time at it, you can develop a good 5 second pitch. Practice it on friends, peers, anyone, by doing the 5 second version, then answering their questions, and then asking them to help you refine the 5 second version again. (And if nothing else, the 5 second version comes in handy at parties, when you need to quickly explain what you’re doing without boring people to tears). As proof that 5 second explanations are possible, here’s some diverse and complex ideas, and some simple 5 second explanations of them.

Discovering DNA “I’m researching how human cells reproduce”
Defragmenting hard drives “It makes computers run more efficiently”
Inventing light bulbs “It’s a way to make light from electricity.”
Writing a brilliant novel “The story explores twenty something angst in the digital age”
Improving anti-lock brake algorithms “It improves automobile safety”

The 30 second and 5 minute versions should grow naturally out of the 5 second version. In 30 seconds, there’s enough time to talk about how you’ll achieve what you described in 5 seconds, or provide specifics of the 2 or 3 most significant things about how the effect described in the 5 second pitch will be achieved. Provide the next level of detail down, adding in just enough interesting detail that the listener can get a clearer picture of your idea, and gain a deeper and more nuanced understanding of what you’re proposing. If you can’t distill down what you’re doing in 5 and 30 second versions, don’t worry too much about the 5 minute version: odds are you won’t get many people to listen to you for that long.

However, since some people prefer written proposals for pitches, this gives you a chance to deliver the 5, 30 and 5 minute versions all at once. In this case it’s often best to keep the same structure: start with your shortest pitch. Then provide the next level of detail down. And finally, the core of the paper or written proposal is a point by point detailing of how, giving the money & resources you need, you’ll achieve what you described in the 5 second pitch.

Also, remember that you won’t always have all of your materials with you when pitching ideas. At least briefly consider how you’d deal with the following different kinds of situations, and with the different asset limitations you’d have in each case.

  • The elevator – you.
  • The slow elevator – you, maybe something to show from your pockets.
  • The lunch – (you , maybe something to show, napkins to draw on, alcohol)
  • The conference room meeting – (laptop / slides / handout)
  • The executive review – (laptop / slides / handout / yes-men / splunge-men)

Sometimes it can be to your advantage to pitch with partner. Instead of one person pitching, you’ll be pitching as a team. If you can find a partner who compliments your skills, and who you can happily collaborate with, it’s probably worth it (And though your ego may try to convince you you’re better off alone, you probably aren’t). It doubles your network of organizational connections, and changes the psychology you’ll have when pitching. Instead of standing alone you’ll be a small team, and may even out number the person you’re pitching to.

Step 5: Test the pitch

The longer you spend with an idea, the more vulnerable you are to your own ego. Get out of your office / cubicle / apartment, and go find smart people you know to give you feedback. Ask them to pretend they are whoever it is you plan to pitch to (This can be fun if you can be specific, as in asking them to behave like Bill Gates, Donald Trump, or your own caricaturization of your boss). Then go through your pitch, responding to their questions (or ignoring their laughter). You won’t always get the feedback you want, but you’ll sharpen both your idea, and the way you talk about it. If the idea is amazing and groundbreaking and you’re afraid to run it by other people, find a close friend or parent and use them.

From your pitch tests, develop a list of questions you expect to be asked during the pitch, and be prepared to answer them.

Step 6: Deliver

Surprise – I don’t think there is a ton to know about actually pitching. If you’ve prepared well, have a good idea that you truly believe in, and manage not to get too nervous, most of the work is in the hand of whoever is listening to you. Be calm, be direct, state your case, and then listen. Like any kind of public speaking type situation, the more often you do it, the more comfortable it will become. But there isn’t much magic to the actual pitch. The only people that need to resort to tricks and manipulations are those that haven’t worked to understand their audience well, or don’t truly believe in what they are pitching.

The best delivery advice I can offer is to make sure you spend some time preparing for a positive response. What happens if they say “That’s an interesting idea. What do you want from me?” Do you want money? Other resources? A change in the project plan? A feature added to the feature list? Know what the sequence of steps are after they agree you have a good idea and be ready to ask for them. If there are other people involved who’s approval you’ll need, ask them to set up a meeting for you. If there is a form that needs to be filled out, make sure you have one with you.

Step 7: What to do when the pitch fails

When things don’t go well, your job is to harvest as much value from the attempt as possible. Always leave failed pitches with an understanding of what went wrong. Which points didn’t they agree with? Which of your assumptions did they refute? In many cases, you might learn there are criteria for green lighting ideas in your organization that you didn’t know about. It’s also possible they objected to something about your approach: maybe they didn’t appreciate that you accosted them outside their office, waving a stack of handouts in their face. If someone else in the room was there observing the pitch, ask for their feedback. In short, get as much learning out of completed pitches as you can. Recoup your investment in the failed pitch by mining any lessons out of it that you can apply next time.

From a tactical perspective: who else can you give this pitch to? Every organization has lots of people at peer levels of hierarchy. Would any of them be interested? Go back to your list from Step 2. Consider compromising on how much power is needed to make your idea happen, or how to split your idea into smaller ideas. Maybe focus on the first small piece of your larger idea, and revisit the rest after you’ve had some initial success.

Step 8: Do it yourself

In every creative industry you can find people rejected by the system who went off on their own, scrapped together their own resources, and made amazing things happen. Scrappy small budget films like Napoleon Dynamite, Clerks, Pi, happened only because a small group of people believed enough in their ideas to make the sacrifices, and do it themselves. Books and novels can be self published. Business can be started on small business loans or second mortgages. There is always a way to do it if you are sufficiently compelled by your ideas to take on risks, and make use of your own (unpaid) time.

If your idea is related to web or software, it’s entirely possible to make a prototype using Flash, HTML or other development tools. Go crack open some books, or if you have the money, go hire someone to make a demo out of your sketches and rough plans. Don’t ever allow yourself to believe that there is only one way to make ideas real: if you’re truly creative, you can apply the same talent used to come with your idea, to the problem of how to make your idea real.


  • Q&A from my pitching workshop
  • Business plans that win, Pitching Hollywood – There are many books on developing business plans and pitching screenplays. I’ve yet to make any exceptional finds here, but these are decent places to start.
  • Changing Minds – Howard Gardner provides a science based framework for how an individual changes the minds of others. More about general science and psychology than a practical guide.
  • Influence: the psychology of persuasion – A classic book on the basic psychology of persuasion. More about advertising and environment than one on one pitch-work, this books offers a framework for how individuals are influenced by the context messages come in, and how the messages themselves are designed.

114 Responses to “How To Pitch an Idea”

  1. Deven

    Very nice insightful article.I will definitely try what you have suggested.

  2. Derek

    Thanks so much for this article. It really helped!

  3. Chris heffernan

    Very good advice, I have to start pitching my business idea, and I realise it is as much about selling myself and my capabilities as it is the idea. I will follow a lot of the advice here!!!!

  4. Angus Ross

    Thank you, you speak my language, just the kind of “springboard” I was looking for.

  5. Kwazi Zungu

    I must thank you for helping me understand how to pitch an idea, and all the steps that must be taken.

    I’m still not clued up on how one goes about acquiring the information needed to support the idea, and how needed research has to be carried out. Along with the possible time it takes for the idea to be ready to pitch.

  6. Andrew Friar


    There is some good material in here, I look forward to referring people onto this article.



  7. Bernard François

    Great article. Working at a company specialized in rapid game prototyping, we get to see quite a lot of ideas. After prototyping an idea, there’s almost always something that can be found to improve the idea, resulting in a better prepared pitch.

    Also, if you can actually show something to make your idea immediately obvious, you have a huge step ahead. One of our customers wrote about his pitching experiences in the following article:


    mr. Scott 4 real u hv given me good advc.thx 4 ur adv and b bleased.

  9. LaSonya Callahan

    I thank you for the great advice about pitchung my idea to major companies.

  10. legalne programy

    I learned about this internet site via Google two days ago and that I am certainly enjoying all the statistics being shared appropriately! Many thanks again!

  11. nathanile23

    honestly that is the best break down. on how to give a pitch i have ever read that was so worth my time thank you very much and i hope you continue doing what you do

  12. Chris Traxson

    Great article thanks. . .loved your sense of humour!

  13. Peter Lyell

    Good, hard-nosed advice. I’ve taken it on board. Thanks. Now I have to do more polishing on an idea. I think you might remind writers and other hopefuls that if an idea doesn’t frighten you a little, it’s probably not an idea.

  14. queen lina

    hiii .. thank you for your great tips .. i have one problem

    i have an idea for a company to develop a product that is already exist .. and they have to do it if they liked it .. which means i have nothing to do with them after telling them my idea … now how would i get benefit from my idea?? how can i pitch it to them without them taking the idea and do it ?? i cant get it panted or anything .. so tell me what to do please .. i have their number and website .. but not anything more than that…

    thank you for your help

  15. truth seeker

    Why are truth and knowledge not considered mutually exclusive. Why must you know something to be true for it to be so. For example: What was the tallest mountain before mount Everest was discovered? Just because it was unknown that mount Everest is the tallest mountain did that make it any less true? If we know something to be true today, then how could it have ever not been true?

    Hypothetically lets say that the center of the earth is made of cheese. Just because we do not know that the center of the earth is made of cheese, does it make it false even though the center of the earth is indeed comprised of cheese?

    I just don’t understand why truth is seen as subjective.

    1. truth lover

      It would be intresting too hear anyone reply to your approach on the reality of truth. The same can be said about GOD,JESUS,heaven, angels,satan,demons,hell, Eternity.We have’nt seen any of them should we dissmiss the belief, rumor, claim of such beings and places because we’ve never seen them.Is this the kind of truth you seek also,or do you believe?

  16. leadershipstyles

    nice post, though you have not covered the full topic but still very effective. i seems you do have knowledge about this

  17. Raj Sharma

    sincere and objectice guidance for novice innovators, have inspiring and benign effect on thinking process.pitching of a new business idea is indeed the focal point if your idea is is ever going to see the light of the day.thanks

  18. Owen Marcus

    You are right, we want to shorten the gestation. Letting our idea go full term allows for a greater chance of survival.

  19. Jocelyne berumen

    THIS WAS VERY HELPFUL, especially for a quiet and weak 10th grader, like me. I’m in a videoproduction class an its VERY important to me. its my second year taking it and I’m taking it again next year. the problem is, that since its a new class the teacher doesn’t knowmuch of what the people who are taking it again should do. I thought, why not do a school variety show? were students and staff can join, and those taking this class again can help either with pre-productoon, production, and post production( depending on what they like or do well in) and make this like an afterschool club acticity
    – i wanted to tell him, but i have this feeling ill say it weird, or he”ll get the wrong idea, maybe he doesn’t want to help?
    -when i.was saying variety show i was thinking if Korean variety shows ( more school. appealing)
    does it sound appeal as a highschool teacher?

  20. Marcin

    I really like the idea of expanding 5sec pitch to the longer versions :) Great article, Scott.

  21. LAB

    Thank you so much for the informative article. I am currently pitching an idea (on paper) to a big corporation and needed some help in the formulation of the idea/pitch.

    I’ll let you know what happens!


    1. jonathan


  22. Carol Hall

    This was an excellent article that clarified the various aspects of creating a pitch – especially encouraging consideration of the scale and scope of the idea. I have an idea that I think will revolutionise the division of the financial services industry in which I work. I think I have a suitable target for my pitch….I want to be involved in the development of the project once the organization receives the idea favorably. Thanks to the salient points you made, encouraging the pitcher to think of both sides of the coin,- the pros and cons from the pitchee’s perspective, I believe I have a blueprint I can use to develop my pitch… Thank you!

  23. John Barber

    Hi there!

    Thanks so much for this article! I currently am in the process of getting my idea out on paper and trying to figure out who the heck to pitch it to. This is a start, but I still have so many questions…

  24. Dabbie

    Thanks a lot! cool.
    learnt a lot for my job interviews.

  25. Http://Kingdutyfree

    Hello! Would you mind if I share your blog with my facebook group?
    There’s a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content. Please let me know. Thank you

  26. Marcus Stout

    Hello I have a pitch that i want to present. My dilemma is that i dont know if its a good pitch or not. I was trying to see if it was anyway you could tell me If I got a food pitch before I present It. If not then maybe you can lead me to right people. I have two movies unfinished written. I’m In the process of wraping them up. But first I want to know if Im going about my pitch the right way. My phone number is 901 288-0056. Please contact or email me.

  27. Jasmine

    this definitly helped, thank you a thousand times :)

  28. Cathal Kelly

    I’ve got billion dollar idea but requires pitch to only one specific company.. Will to split shares if someone can make it happen.

  29. Hammad Khan

    OK, I have read many articles of sorts and has finally and successfully pitched my idea to a CEO. I got an email back from him encouraging my efforts and asking me if he can further discuss it with other people in the organization which I agreed to.

    It has now been more than a week and I haven’t heard back from him. NOW WHAT?

    I mean, should I send him another email which I don’t feel good about, after all he is the CEO. Or should I send him a text message or give him a call. What approach do I use and what to tell him?

  30. Dawn White

    Succinctly, functionally, understandably you have opened a new Universe for me and I am abjectly grateful for your efforts on my behalf.

  31. Yuri

    Thanks a lot for this fantastic post!

    I would like to introduce another step to this excellent guide: prototyping. Basically, that’s a process of putting together a rough working model of your product. We have written some articles on the benefits and methods of making prototypes for digital products :

  32. jagdish

    It is good to make analogies of your ideas with the simple things around you, like trees( it is a great management system, from roots to trunk to sub branches n leaves ) , life cycles, go green stuff…

  33. mario

    Movie idea: Wife of police officer calls fire department when she feels like she’s having a nervous breakdown. Yet, when the fire department arrives, she makes eye contact with a fire firefighter, much younger than she, but they make a positive contact. This brings lots of tension, as the fire fighter she makes contact and energy with has gone on several calls where this woman’s wife is doing mutual aid. This leads to more scenes, more and more until, finally that moment occurs when the wife and the firefighter meet again, and sparks fly…meanwhile the police officer husband suspects what’s going on and he’s about do to some investigation himself, to get his wife’s attention back to him and away from this not so nice fire fighter.

    1. Scott Berkun

      You get 2 points for being brave enough to pitch your idea, but you lose 10 points for pitching it here as no-one here works in the movie industry, and if they did, this isn’t how you pitch a movie idea (thus failing one of the major ideas in the essay).



Leave a Reply

* Required